Among Zulus, Mongolians, Polynesians, and American Southerners, anthropologists have documented the practice of questioning travelers for news as a matter of priority. The news is also transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths. Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news, even after telecommunications became widely available.
The history of the coffee houses is traced from Arab countries, which was introduced in England in the 16th century. Travelers on pilgrimages to Mecca traditionally stay at caravanserais , roadside inns, along the way, and these places have naturally served as hubs for gaining news of the world. Before the invention of newspapers in the early 17th century, official government bulletins and edicts were circulated at times in some centralized empires.
These were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places. Specially sanctioned messengers have been recognized in Vietnamese culture , among the Khasi people in India, and in the Fox and Winnebago cultures of the American midwest. The Zulu Kingdom used runners to quickly disseminate news. In West Africa, news can be spread by griots. In most cases, the official spreaders of news have been closely aligned with holders of political power. Town criers were a common means of conveying information to citydwellers.
In thirteenth-century Florence, criers known as banditori arrived in the market regularly, to announce political news, to convoke public meetings, and to call the populace to arms. In and —, laws were established governing their appointment, conduct, and salary. These laws stipulated how many times a banditoro was to repeat a proclamation forty and where in the city they were to read them.
Under the Ottoman Empire , official messages were regularly distributed at mosques, by traveling holy men, and by secular criers. These criers were sent to read official announcements in marketplaces, highways, and other well-traveled places, sometimes issuing commands and penalties for disobedience. The spread of news has always been linked to the communications networks in place to disseminate it. Thus, political, religious, and commercial interests have historically controlled, expanded, and monitored communications channels by which news could spread. Postal services have long been closely entwined with the maintenance of political power in a large area.
One of the imperial communication channels, called the " Royal Road " traversed the Assyrian Empire and served as a key source of its power. Visible chains of long distance signaling, known as optical telegraphy , have also been used throughout history to convey limited types of information. These can have ranged from smoke and fire signals to advanced systems using semaphore codes and telescopes. The world's first written news may have originated in eighth century BCE China , where reports gathered by officials were eventually compiled as the Spring and Autumn Annals.
The annals, whose compilation is attributed to Confucius , were available to a sizeable reading public and dealt with common news themes—though they straddle the line between news and history. Between and , the Kaiyuan Za Bao "Bulletin of the Court" of the Chinese Tang Dynasty published government news; it was handwritten on silk and read by government officials. Japan had effective communications and postal delivery networks at several points in its history, first in with the Taika Reform and again during the Kamakura period from — The system depended on hikyaku , runners, and regularly spaced relay stations.
By this method, news could travel between Kyoto and Kamakura in 5—7 days. Special horse-mounted messengers could move information at the speed of kilometers per day. This system was initially used only by the government, taking private communications only at exorbitant prices. Private services emerged and in established their own nakama guild. They became even faster, and created an effective optical telegraphy system using flags by day and lanterns and mirrors by night. In Europe, during the Middle Ages, elites relied on runners to transmit news over long distances.
At 33 kilometres per day, a runner would take two months to bring a message across the Hanseatic League from Bruges to Riga. The driving force of this new development was the commercial advantage provided by up-to-date news.
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In , the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie scritte , which cost one gazetta. Sponsorship flavored the contents of each series, which were circulated under many different names. Subscribers included clerics, diplomatic staff, and noble families.
By the last quarter of the seventeenth century avvisi long passages from were finding their way into published monthlies such as the Mercure de France and, in northern Italy, Pallade veneta. Postal services enabled merchants and monarchs to stay abreast of important information. For the Holy Roman Empire , Emperor Maximillian I in authorized two brothers from the Italian Tasso family, Francesco and Janetto, to create a network of courier stations linked by riders. They began with a communications line between Innsbruck and Mechelen and grew from there.
These riders could travel kilometers in a day. These connections underpinned an extensive system of news circulation, with handwritten items bearing dates and places of origin. Indeed, personal correspondence sometimes acted only as a convenient channel through which news could flow across a larger network.
The spread of paper and the printing press from China to Europe preceded a major advance in the transmission of news. Private newsletters containing important intelligence therefore remained in use by people who needed to know. The new format, which mashed together numerous unrelated and perhaps dubious reports from far-flung locations, created a radically new and jarring experience for its readers.
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News for public consumption was at first tightly controlled by governments. By , England had created a licensing system for the press and banned "seditious opinions". In France, censorship was even more constant. The new United States saw a newspaper boom beginning with the Revolutionary era, accelerated by spirited debates over the establishment of a new government, spurred on by subsidies contained in the Postal Service Act , and continuing into the s. Thus by offering free postage to newspapers wishing to exchange copies, the Postal Service Act subsidized a rapidly growing news network through which different stories could percolate.
Some newspapers published in the s and after retained the commercial orientation characteristic of the private newsletters of the Renaissance. Economically oriented newspapers published new types of data enabled the advent of statistics , especially economic statistics which could inform sophisticated investment decisions. Yet, as in the case other newspapers, the incorporation of advertising into the newspaper led to justified reservations about accepting newspaper information at face value.
Newspapers came to sub-Saharan Africa via colonization. Some liberalization and diversification took place in the s. Newspapers were slow to spread to the Arab world , which had a stronger tradition of oral communication , and mistrust of the European approach to news reporting. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire's leaders in Istanbul did monitor the European press, but its contents were not disseminated for mass consumption. The development of the electrical telegraph , which often travelled along railroad lines, enabled news to travel faster, over longer distances.
Havas began in , using the French government's optical telegraph network. In he began using pigeons for communications to Paris, London, and Brussels.
Havas began to use the electric telegraph when it became available. The telegraph ushered in a new global communications regime, accompanied by a restructuring of the national postal systems, and closely followed by the advent of telephone lines. With the value of international news at a premium, governments, businesses, and news agencies moved aggressively to reduce transmission times.
In , Reuters had the scoop on the Lincoln assassination , reporting the news in England twelve days after the event took place.
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The rebels proceeded to disrupt the British telegraph network, which was rebuilt with more redundancies. By the turn of the century i. In , the Party renamed the agency Xinhua , New China. Xinhua became the official news agency of the People's Republic of China in These agencies touted their ability to distill events into "minute globules of news", 20—30 word summaries which conveyed the essence of new developments.
As in previous eras, the news agencies provided special services to political and business clients, and these services constituted a significant portion of their operations and income. The wire services maintained close relationships with their respective national governments, which provided both press releases and payments. In order to send goods to another area, merchants needed to know first whether in fact to send off the goods and to what place.
Information costs and speed were essential for these decisions. The British Broadcasting Company began transmitting radio news from London in , dependent entirely, by law, on the British news agencies. To the displeasure of many listeners, the BBC took an unambiguously pro-government stance against the strikers.
The Paley family founded CBS soon after. These two networks, which supplied news broadcasts to subsidiaries and affiliates, dominated the airwaves throughout the period of radio's hegemony as a news source. This operation was financed mostly with advertising and public relations money.
The Soviet Union began a major international broadcasting operation in , with stations in German, English and French. The Nazi Party made use of the radio in its rise to power in Germany, with much of its propaganda focused on attacking the Soviet Bolsheviks. The British and Italian foreign radio services competed for influence in North Africa. All four of these broadcast services grew increasingly vitriolic as the European nations prepared for war.
The war provided an opportunity to expand radio and take advantage of its new potential. Listeners followed along with developments throughout the day. In Britain and the United States, television news watching rose dramatically in the s and by the s supplanted radio as the public's primary source of news. Murrow , who first entered the public ear as a war reporter in London, made the big leap to television to become an iconic newsman on CBS and later the director of the United States Information Agency.fr.jigudyhiqa.cf
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It used Arabsat to broadcast. Department of Defense and used mostly by academics. It became available to a wider public with the release of the Netscape browser in The Oklahoma City Daily posted news to its site within hours. Two of the only news sites capable of hosting images, the San Jose Mercury News and Time magazine, posted photographs of the scene. Quantitatively, the internet has massively expanded the sheer volume of news items available to one person. The speed of news flow to individuals has also reached a new plateau. Zbigniew Brzezinski called this period the "technetronic era", in which "global reality increasingly absorbs the individual, involves him, and even occasionally overwhelms him.